On July 13, a report released by the Brookings Institution entitled, “Sizing the Clean Economy: A National and Regional Green Jobs Assessment,” indicated that the U.S. “clean” economy employs millions of people in green jobs across some of the largest metropolitan areas, but market challenges and policy uncertainty have hindered the sector's ability to keep pace with other nations. The report identifies obstacles to growth, including policy gaps that undercut market demand, financing shortfalls that lead to uncertainty and instability for investors, and an inadequate system for supporting innovation. Furthermore, it noted that Americaʼs major competitors, such as China and Germany, have raced ahead in supporting clean economy development. The report also found the clean energy sector to be more driven by manufacturing and exports than the economy as a whole. Twenty-six percent of those jobs are in manufacturing, compared to nine percent in the broader economy, and the value of exports, on a per-job basis, is twice that of a typical U.S. job. In 2009, the clean economy generated nearly $54 billion in goods and services exports. The electric vehicles (EV), green chemical products, and lighting segments are all highly manufacturing intensive while the biofuels, green chemicals, and EV industries are highly export intensive. As one of the report's policy recommendations was a suggestion that the federal government install a system of carbon pricing or set up national clean energy standards. Additionally, the report said states could adopt clean-energy standards and promote energy efficiency and renewable energy adoption. Additional recommendations included; developing and sustaining more energy innovation hubs; increasing the funding of the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, the government agency set up in 2007 to promote and fund research and the development of advanced energy technologies; and launching new water sciences and regional clean economy consortia initiatives.