The 18th Conference of Parties to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 8th Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol began their annual two weeks of climate talks in Doha, Qatar November 26, and international negotiators will grapple with what kind of actions will be required of industrialized and rapidly developing nations in a 2020 global climate agreement while also ensuring the extension of CO2 caps under the Kyoto protocol. Negotiators from 190 countries will participate in the summit through December 7. Jonathan Pershing, U.S. deputy special envoy for climate change, called November 26 on negotiators to resist any attempt to revisit the deal made last year in Durban that committed all countries to take actions to curb global warming. The European Parliament approved a resolution November 22 finding that the summit should adopt a decision identifying the mitigation gap between current emissions and safe levels.