Addressing the International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, Mark Goldberg, a member of the President’s Council on Advisors in Science and Technology (PCAST), advised symposium participants that a shift away from longterm, exclusive spectrum licensing to a shared paradigm will spur competitive and investment opportunities. Goldberg is a co-author of the recently-released PCAST report that urges the Obama Administration to mandate the sharing of government channels (in lieu of the current system of reassigning federal spectrum to commercial entities) as a means of freeing up capacity for wireless broadband use. In remarks to his audience, Goldberg emphasized that PCAST’s goal is to “turn spectrum from scarcity to abundance so that we can create that innovative, virtuous cycle and really have the opportunity to create a lot of companies as we saw in the Internet of the 1990s.” While admitting “there is an expectation, important to the people who bid on these auctions . . . that there’s sort of a lifetime renewal as long as they want to use [the auctioned spectrum],” Goldberg pushed the case for short- and medium-term spectrum licenses “that match the capital investment that people will want to put forward.” Predicting a dynamic spectrum sharing mechanism that recognizes the rights of both federal and commercial users could be in place within three years, Goldberg said: “it’s not just the commercial side that needs more spectrum—the federal government continues to use and will continue to use more spectrum for its work.” Preston Marshall, a second co-author of the PCAST report from the University of Southern California, added that the key is a shift in focus from spectrum efficiency to spectrum effectiveness, explaining that spectrum effectiveness “focuses not on how transmitters use spectrum but on how systems and architecture allow spectrum to be reused.”