In a new round of infringement proceedings concerning telecoms rules, the European Commission has referred a number of cases to the European Court of Justice (ECJ). Two examples of these concern Poland and Belgium. Poland will be taken to the ECJ as legislative changes introduced in August 2006 still do not ensure the full independence of the Polish regulator. The Polish Government still controls significant shareholdings in a number of telecommunication companies and the Polish President of the Council of Ministers has unlimited discretion to dismiss the head of the national regulator. Poland has also been sent a reasoned opinion for retaining broadband retail regulation without conducting the market analysis that is required under EU law. Belgium is being taken to the ECJ in relation to universal service, i.e., the obligation imposed on operators of electronic communications networks and/or services to provide a minimum set of services to all users, regardless of their geographical location within the national territory, at an affordable price (Directive 2002/22/EC). Belgium’s problems relate to the financial mechanism for tariffs, such as the calculation of net costs and the unfair burden on operators.