Biffa Waste Services pleaded guilty to breach of s3(1) of the HSWA in that it exposed non employees to risks from its undertaking. A self-employed worker, Charlie Smith, was working with his son as "totters" which involved removing potentially valuable items from mixed waste. Smith was not a direct employee, but Biffa allowed the practice to take place on the basis that it would reduce its overall landfill costs. Smith was inducted and provided with personal protective equipment by Biffa. However, it was noted that risk management on site had failed to take into account standard vehicle movement during the day, and this had led to Smith's death when he was crushed by the wheel of a shovel loader which was transporting plastics to a conveyor belt in the shed that Smith was working in. Biffa was fined £190k and ordered to pay costs of £50k together with £10k compensation to Smith's widow. The fine represented 0.8% of Biffa's profit and 0.3% turnover. If the proposals from the SAP had been in place, the lowest level fine would have been set at around of £13.6m which represents 2.5% of Biffa's turnover of £544.9 million.