On January 23, 2008 the European Commission imposed fines totaling €34.2 million on Bayer and Zeon, for agreeing to raise and stabilize prices for Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). NBR is used in car manufacturing, namely for fuel and oil handling hoses, seals, o-rings and water handling applications. Both Bayer and Zeon had their fines reduced by 30 percent and 20 percent respectively for having cooperated with the Commission under the 2002 EC Leniency Program; however, Bayer’s fine was increased by 50 percent because the company previously was found to have engaged in cartel activity.