On 11-22 November 2013 Warsaw hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference, (COP19 or CMP9). This was the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP19) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 9th Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to Kyoto Protocol (CMP9). Since the UNFCCC entered into force in 1994, the Conference has been meeting annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change, review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention, including institutional and administrative arrangements.

This year the Conference agreed to initiate or intensify domestic preparation of the countries for their intended national contributions towards the new universal climate agreement which will come into force from 2020. Parties ready to do this will submit clear and transparent plans well in advance of COP 21, in Paris, and by the first quarter of 2015.

The conference also decided to establish an international mechanism to provide most vulnerable populations with better protection against loss and damage caused by extreme weather events and slow onset events such as rising sea levels. Detailed work on the so-called “Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage” will begin next year.

Moreover, the Conference adopted a significant set of decisions on ways to help developing countries reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and the degradation of forests. This instrument was named the Warsaw Framework for REDD+.”

In addition, governments provided more clarity on mobilizing finance to support developing country actions to curb emissions and adapt to climate change. 48 of the poorest countries of the world established a comprehensive set of plans to deal with the inevitable impacts of climate change. With these plans, the countries can better assess the immediate impacts of climate change and what they need in the way of support to become more resilient. Developed countries, including Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland have also paid or pledged over 100 million dollars to add to the Adaptation Fund, which has now started to fund national projects.

Alongside the UNFCCC talks, on 18-19 November 2013 the 'International Coal & Climate Summit' was held in Warsaw. The Summit brought together the leadership of the world's largest coal producing companies, senior policy-makers, business leaders, academics and NGO representatives to discuss the role of coal in the global economy, in the context of the climate change agenda.