An Alabama police officer's conviction for knowingly impeding a federal investigation under a provision enacted as part of Sarbanes–Oxley was recently upheld by the 11th Circuit. The officer's criminal act involved falsely claiming, in a routine departmental report, that a suspect grabbed the officer before the officer used force to subdue him. The routine report was submitted prior to the initiation of any investigation, state or federal. The government showed that the officer knowingly impeded the investigation based upon the fact that the officer knew that the federal government investigates and prosecutes civil rights violations such as excessive force claims. Significantly, nearly every healthcare provider and provider employee is aware that the federal government investigates and prosecutes healthcare fraud claims. Consequently, a false statement in a routine provider document, even if not submitted to the federal government, may allow the government to claim that the person making the statement knowingly intended to impede a federal investigation. Section 802 of Sarbanes–Oxley criminalizes knowingly altering, destroying, mutilating, concealing, falsifying, or making a false entry in any record or document, with the intent to impede, obstruct, or influence a federal investigation.