This dispute concerns indemnity for losses stemming from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 and the loss of aircraft at the Kuwait International Airport when Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. Equitas Ltd. (“Equitas”), as the assignee of the rights of Lloyd’s syndicates, brought claims against R&Q Reinsurance Company Ltd. (“R&Q”) under reinsurance contracts written by R&Q within the London Market Excess of Loss spiral. Equitas argued that recoverable losses were capable of being proved, Equitas had succeeded in proving these losses to a standard of the balance of probabilities through the use of actuarial modeling, and, therefore, Equitas was entitled to recovery. R&Q argued against any recovery unless Equitas could prove contract by contract, at each level of the spiral, that the sums claimed were properly due. The High Court sided with Equitas, ruling that how Equitas proved losses was one of fact or evidence. Equitas was not required to prove losses contract by contract at each level of the spiral. The High Court next ruled that actuarial modeling, although imperfect, was an acceptable solution to prove properly recoverable losses incurred by the syndicates. Equitas Ltd. v. R&Q Reins. Co. Ltd., [2009] EWHC 2787 (Comm. Ct. Nov. 11, 2009).