Sue and Settle: Regulating Behind Closed Doors was released May 20 by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, finding that the sue-and-settle tactic used in environmental rulemaking has resulted in $488 billion worth of compliance costs between 2009 and 2012. Most of the costs were imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency, and the utility MACT rule has been identified as the most expensive rule at $9.6 billion annually.