The United States District Court for the District of Maryland has dismissed a case brought against the National Security Agency by nine organizations (Wikimedia Foundation, the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, Amnesty International USA, Human Rights Watch, PEN American Center, Global Fund for Women, The Nation Magazine, The Rutherford Institute, and the Washington Office on Latin America) which claimed the NSA’s collection and review of their online communications violated their First and Fourth Amendment rights and exceeded the agency’s authority under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.  The court held that the nine plaintiffs lacked Article III standing and had failed to prove any actual injury sustained as a result of the NSA’s "Upstream" surveillance program.