The First Electricity and Gas Directives already contained provisions for a National Regulatory Authority (NRA). With the introduction of the Second Gas and Electricity Directives, the role of the NRAs has been expanded in scope. The most important task of these NRAs is perhaps the supervision of network access pursuant to article 23 of the Second Electricity Directive and article 25 of the Second Gas Directive. Furthermore, the NRAs are required to ensure non-discrimination, effective competition and the efficient functioning of the market. In addition to these tasks, the NRA has been tasked with monitoring:

  •  the rules on the management and allocation of interconnection capacity, in conjunction with the regulatory authority or authorities of those Member States with which interconnection exists 
  • any mechanisms to deal with congested capacity within the national electricity system 
  • the time taken by transportation and distribution undertakings to make connections and repairs 
  • the publication of appropriate information by TSOs and DSOs concerning interconnectors, grid usage and capacity allocation to interested parties, taking into account the need to treat non-aggregated information as commercially confidential 
  • the effective unbundling of accounts to ensure that there are no cross-subsidies between generation, transmission, distribution and supply activities 
  • the terms, conditions and tariffs for connecting new producers of electricity to guarantee that these are objective, transparent and non-discriminatory, in particular taking full account of the costs and benefits of the various renewable energy sources technologies, distributed generation and combined heat and power 
  • the extent to which TSOs and DSOs fulfil their tasks in accordance with the Second Gas and Electricity Directives 
  • the level of transparency and competition

The regulatory authority responsible for the monitoring activities must also publish an annual report on its activities.