Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, former head of the Consumer Protection Bureau, has written to US Attorney General Eric Holder, Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke and Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission Mary Jo White demanding research on the efficacy of settlements that allow a company to neither admit nor deny wrongdoing. This practice, common in DOJ and SEC enforcement actions, has come under recent scrutiny in the US. leading one US court to refuse to approve a settlement that did not include an admission of wrongdoing.