On September 16, 2015, the District Court of Minnesota granted certification of a class of entities that had issued payment cards that were compromised in the breach of Target’s computer network during the 2013 holiday shopping season. The certification order was issued in the financial institutions “track” of the litigation; Target previously reached a settlement in the consumer track of the litigation, which is pending final approval. In granting class certification, the court noted that the cost to card-issuing entities to replace payment cards was “borne at the time of the breach” and was therefore distinguishable from the future harm alleged in the consumer track of the litigation. The court also ruled that plaintiffs’ expert had sufficiently demonstrated that it would be possible to prove classwide common injury and to compute classwide damages, but noted that if classwide damages became unworkable, a damages class could be decertified after the liability phase concludes. Separately, in mid-August, Target announced that it had reached a settlement with Visa and certain Visa card issuers as part of Visa’s assessment process. As part of that settlement, Target agreed to pay expenses that the financial institutions incurred during the breach, including costs to reissue cards, up to approximately US$67 million.