On 18 April the European Commission announced fines totalling €274 million for four brewers, including Heineken, Grolsch, Bavaria and InBev, who had engaged in a price-fixing cartel. The fines follow on from the Commission's investigation into various alleged beer cartels across France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. The Commission found evidence, including handwritten notes from meetings between the cartel members, that demonstrated coordination between the brewers of the sort of rebates that they would offer to pubs and bars using their products, as well as some coordination in relation to individual customers. The infringement was seen as particularly serious since high-ranking members of each brewery group had been engaged in the meetings, using code names and abbreviations to refer to their plans. InBev, who would have received a fine of €84m, was granted immunity for taking advantage of the Commission's leniency arrangements.
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