R. v. Canadian Broadcasting Corp., 2018 SCC 5 — Injunctions — Interlocutory injunctions — Publication bans — Contempt
On appeal from a judgment of the Alberta Court of Appeal (2016 ABCA 326) setting aside a decision of Michalyshyn, J. (2016 ABQB 204).
An accused was charged with the first degree murder of a person under the age of 18. Upon the Crown’s request, a mandatory ban prohibiting the publication, broadcast or transmission in any way of any information that could identify the victim was ordered pursuant to s. 486.4(2.2) of the Criminal Code. Prior to the issuance of the publication ban, CBC posted information revealing the identity of the victim on its website. As a result of CBC’s refusal to remove this information, the Crown sought an order citing CBC in criminal contempt of the publication ban and an interlocutory injunction directing the removal of the victim’s identifying information. The chambers judge concluded that the Crown had not established the requirements for a mandatory interlocutory injunction, and dismissed its application. The majority of the Court of Appeal allowed the appeal and granted the mandatory interlocutory injunction.
Held (9-0): The appeal should be allowed.
To obtain a mandatory interlocutory injunction, the appropriate criterion for assessing the strength of the applicant’s case at the first stage of the RJR—MacDonald test is not whether there is a serious issue to be tried, but rather whether the applicant has demonstrated a strong prima facie case. The potentially severe consequences for a defendant which can result from a mandatory interlocutory injunction further demand an extensive review of the merits at the interlocutory stage. This modifiedRJR—MacDonald test entails showing a strong likelihood on the law and the evidence presented that, at trial, the applicant will be ultimately successful in proving the allegations set out in the originating notice. The applicant must also demonstrate that irreparable harm will result if the relief is not granted and that the balance of convenience favours granting the injunction.
In this case, a literal reading of the originating notice shows that the Crown brought an application for criminal contempt and sought an interim injunction in that proceeding. The Crown thus proceeded on the basis that its application for an interlocutory injunction was sought in respect of the citation for criminal contempt. The originating notice itself, and the sequencing therein of the relief sought, belies its putatively hybrid character. The two applications are linked, such that the latter is tied not to the mere placement by CBC of the victim’s identifying information on its website, but to the sought‑after criminal contempt citation. Each prayer for relief does not launch an independent proceeding; rather, both relate to the alleged criminal contempt. In addition, an injunction is not a cause of action, in the sense of containing its own authorizing force. It is a remedy. An originating application must state both the claim and the basis for it and the remedy sought. Here, the Crown’s originating notice discloses only a single basis for seeking a remedy: CBC’s alleged criminal contempt of court. Therefore, the Crown was bound to show a strong prima facie case of criminal contempt of court. This case should not however be taken as standing for the proposition that injunctive relief is ordinarily or readily available in criminal matters. The delineation of the circumstances in which an interlocutory injunction may be sought and issued to enjoin allegedly criminal conduct is not decided here.
The decision to grant or refuse an interlocutory injunction is a discretionary exercise, with which an appellate court must not interfere solely because it would have exercised the discretion differently. Appellate intervention is justified only where the chambers judge proceeded on a misunderstanding of the law or of the evidence before him, where an inference can be demonstrated to be wrong by further evidence that has since become available, where there has been a change of circumstances or where the decision to grant or refuse the injunction is so aberrant that it must be set aside on the ground that no reasonable judge could have reached it. In this case, the Crown’s burden was not to show a case for criminal contempt that leans one way or another, but rather a case, based on the law and evidence presented, that has a strong likelihood that it would be successful in proving CBC’s guilt of criminal contempt of court. This is not an easy burden to discharge and the Crown has failed to do so here. The chambers judge applied the correct legal test in deciding the Crown’s application and his decision that the Crown’s case failed to satisfy that test did not, in these circumstances, warrant appellate intervention.