Environmental groups, industry associations, and the state of Texas filed nine separate petitions October 15 in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia challenging the Environmental Protection Agency’s first air pollution standards for natural gas fracking. The agency released the rule in April and published it August 16. The final rule, which took effect October 15, impacts 11,400 fractured and 1,400 refractured wells as well as storage tanks and other equipment. The new source performance standards are expected to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds, CH4, and air toxics, but do not directly regulate CH4.