Russia enacted a new law that will mandate that telecommunications operators and Internet service providers (ISPs) undertake massive data retention efforts. The law also requires ISPs using encryption to make decryption keys available to the government upon request or face fines for both the business and company executives. The Russian government says the law is necessary to aid anti-terrorism efforts, but critics have expressed concerns that it could be used arbitrarily and to silence opposition. The law also includes other counterterrorism measures, including tougher sentences for extremism and penalties for inciting terrorism online. The law will take effect on July 20.