On October 20, the American Petroleum Institute released Key Investments in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies from 2000 Through 2010 by Energy Firms, Other Industry and the Federal Government finding $71 billion invested by U.S.-based oil and natural gas companies in clean energy technologies between 2000 and 2010 was more than the federal government’s $43 billion invested during the same period. The investments include substituting cleaner fuels like ethanol, reducing flaring and fugitive emissions, and co-generating heat and power. These investments reduced the industry's greenhouse gas emissions by 55.9 million metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent between 2008 and 2009.