The Treaty of Lisbon (the "Treaty") was signed in Lisbon on December 13, 2007, and amends primary European legislation - the "Maastricht" Treaty on European Union, and the "Rome" Treaty establishing the European Community. After finally being ratified by the last EU member state, the Czech Republic, the Treaty will enter into force on December 1, 2009.

The Czech ratification process was completed after the Czech Constitutional Court confirmed that the Treaty is consistent with the Czech constitutional order, upon which the Czech president ratified the treaty on November 3, 2009, and the Czech instrument of ratification was deposited in Rome on November 13, 2009.

However, the Czech president conditioned the ratification by a request for an exemption from the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the "Charter") for the Czech Republic. The Treaty elevated the Charter, which lists political, social and economic rights of EU citizens, to the same legal level as primary legislation, i.e. making it binding over domestic law. Following the protests of the United Kingdom and Poland, the Czech Republic has also opted out of these provisions of the Treaty by means of an attached protocol.