Canadian Citizenship and Immigration Minister Chris Alexander suggested this week on Canadian television that Canadian sanctions against Russia were a possibility if Russia was to support violent strife in Ukraine. Although Alexander has since declined to comment on specific sanctions against Russia and other “hypothetical scenarios,” the idea that Canada would sanction Russia in some form should not come as a surprise.
Canada has quietly developed an economic sanctions regime that may be the world’s most aggressive outside the United States. Case in point is Iran. While the United States and the EU are at the negotiation table with Iran, Canada has stood steadfastly by its sanctions, which now include a comprehensive trade embargo as of last May.
Some in the Canadian press have pointed out that Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s alliance with Israel and its Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who called Harper a “great friend,” is the reason for increasing sanctions against Iran. But Canadian sanctions remain aggressive in other parts of the world as well. Canada, unlike the EU, has a comprehensive trade embargo against North Korea. Canada also has strong sanctions remaining against Burma as well as some of the strongest global sanctions against Syria.
The glaring omission is, of course, sanctions against Cuba, which Canada does not have. In fact, Canada is Cuba’s largest export destination. Canada’s Foreign Extraterritorial Measures Act, moreover, has long created a transnational dilemma because it prohibits any business in Canada from complying with U.S. sanctions against Cuba. Businesses subject to both U.S. and Canadian laws will violate someone’s law in deciding whether or not to do business with Cuba. As aggressive as Canada is in imposing sanctions against some countries, it is also aggressive in countering sanctions which it does not support.
But why shouldn’t Canada have a leading role in developing global sanctions policy? Canada is the second-largest country in the world and one of the few countries with over a trillion dollars in GDP. Eastern Canada’s traditional ties to Europe and western Canada’s increasing ties to China, Japan and the rest of the Pacific Rim make Canada one of the most globally connected countries.
For exporters with business in the United States, EU and Canada that presume that U.S. sanctions set the bar for your global compliance efforts, you may increasingly need to think again with respect to Canada. Remember the Canadians can beat us at our own game: the Blue Jays won the World Series (twice)!