The European Commission has opened two separate, own-initiative investigations into code-sharing agreements between Lufthansa and Turkish Airlines, and Brussels Airlines and TAP Air Portugal respectively. The investigations will focus on whether parallel hub-to-hub code sharing is in breach of EU rules on anti-competitive agreements. Parallel hub-to-hub code sharing allows carriers to sell as many seats on their partner’s flights as they want, as long as there are seats available, on routes connecting their hubs. This contrasts from the common form of code-sharing whereby a carrier sells seats on a partner’s flights on routes it does not operate so as to extend the reach of services. Concerns have been raised over whether the code-sharing arrangements identified may be leading higher prices and less service quality for passengers on routes between Germany and Turkey and Belgium and Portugal.