The United Nations climate talks, finalised on 15 December 2007, produced a two year negotiation “roadmap” that will eventually replace the Kyoto Protocol and aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Significant developments at the talks included agreement in principle to the setting up of new climate change adaptation funds, technology transfers to less developed countries and inclusion of anti-deforestation mechanisms. The agreed roadmap follows on from the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Kyoto Protocol commits signatories to specific GreenHouse Gas (GHG) reductions with the aim of reaching a 5 per cent global reduction of GHGs by 2012, compared to 1990 levels. Some large emitters, such as the United States, are not signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. The roadmap agreed in Bali, Indonesia on 15 December encompasses a negotiation framework for a global climate change agreement to replace the Kyoto Protocol in 2012.

Despite resistance, notably from the United States, the parties agreed that the new protocol will have "measurable, reportable and verifiable nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions, including quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives, by all developed country parties, while ensuring the comparability of efforts amongst them, taking into account differences in their national circumstances". Developing countries are to adopt "nationally appropriate mitigation actions". Negotiations on individual country commitments for specific GHG emission reductions are yet to come. The first such negotiations will be held in Hawaii on 28 and 29 January 2008.