The World Trade Organization (WTO) announced its dispute panel will release a ruling on a case involving rare earths exports from China by November 21. The U.S., the European Union, and Japan petitioned the WTO, saying Chinese export duties, export quotas, and restrictions for rare earths violate international trade rules and the country’s 2001 WTO accession agreement. China responded to the July 2012 allegation that the restrictions improve economic development and protect natural resources. These resources are often used in manufacturing, especially for energy efficient lighting, hybrid car batteries, and wind turbines. A previous WTO ruling on a case filed by the U.S., the European Union, and Mexico found China at fault for raw material restrictions.