On 30 July 2007, the European Commission issued a Statement of Objections (SO) to Rambus, one of the world's premier technology licensing companies that specialises in the invention and design of high-speed chip interfaces. The SO outlines the Commission’s view that Rambus had abused its dominant position by claiming unreasonable royalties for the use of certain patents for Dynamic Random Access Memory chips (DRAMs). DRAMs, which provide electronic memory in a wide range of electronic products, were standardised by an industry-wide standards body, the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC). The Commission’s allegation is that, during the process to agree an industry standard, Rambus engaged in intentionally deceptive conduct by not disclosing the existence of its DRAM patents. Once its patents were included in the standard, Rambus then claimed royalties from manufacturers producing products in accordance with the adopted standard. The US Federal Trade Commission has already held Rambus liable in the United States for illegal monopolisation and limited the royalties which Rambus can charge on DRAMs.