On April 23, following a two-year investigation of employee promotions in the Jacksonville, Florida fire department, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) filed a lawsuit against the city, claiming that its use of written tests are "not job related for the positions in question" and that the tests have "resulted in a disparate impact upon black candidates." According to the DOJ, because African-Americans pass these tests at a lower rate and generally score lower on them, African-Americans have been promoted less often than white employees, and that, in effect, the city is using the tests to disqualify certain people.