Eleven federal agencies and the Federal Permitting Improvement Steering Council signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) providing that one federal agency will serve as the lead agency to guide an infrastructure project through the entire federal environmental review and permitting process required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Agencies will follow the timeline set by the lead agency, with the goal of completing review of a project within two years. The White House announcement of the MOU noted that according to a 2014 report by the Government Accountability Office, the median time for environmental review of a complex highway project is seven years. The MOU is the latest step in the administration’s efforts to promote increased efficiency and certainty for project proponents in the NEPA review and approval process. We discuss highlights from the MOU here.