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Transport and storage
What is the general legal framework governing the transportation and storage of oil and gas resources in your jurisdiction?
As with exploration and production, the transportation of oil and gas is governed by a general application regime, alongside other special regimes (eg, production sharing agreements (PSAs) and main export pipeline and host government agreements (HGAs)).
Under the Energy Law, the state has exclusive rights in the construction and management of major energy transportation systems, without prejudice to the rights of individuals and legal entities. Such systems can be used for the distribution of energy if so provided in the energy contracts. When contractors cannot use existing transportation systems, they may install and exploit transportation means at their own expense.
The transportation of gas resources is also regulated by the Gas Supply Law (513-IQ/1998), under which contractors must comply with the terms of energy contracts, as well as the relevant laws for installing, exploiting and maintaining gas transportation facilities.
Transportation by export pipelines developed with foreign partners is typically governed by agreements developed by partners in the relevant projects.
How is cross-border transportation of oil and gas resources regulated?
Cross-border transportation is typically regulated pursuant to agreements with operators of neighbouring states and can include HGA provisions as well as regulations of general application (eg, Customs).
Are there specific provisions governing marine and ground transportation of oil and gas resources?
There are no specific rules other than those relating to the transportation of hazardous goods. These include the Rules of Carriage of Hazardous Cargo by Marine Transport (approved by Resolution 75/2000) and the Rules on the Carriage of Hazardous Cargo by Automobile Transport (approved by Resolution 10/2000).
Construction and infrastructure
How are the construction and operation of pipelines, storage facilities and related infrastructure regulated?
The construction and operation of pipelines, storage facilities and related infrastructure are regulated by the Energy Law. Activities can be conducted through contractors entering into energy contracts with the Ministry of Energy (ie, the Republic). The law provides for different types of energy contract, including agreements on major energy transportation systems.
The construction and operation of export pipelines are regulated pursuant to agreements between governments (intergovernmental agreements) and with and among investors in those projects (eg, though HGAs).
What rules govern third-party access to pipelines and related infrastructure?
Third-party access to pipelines and related infrastructure is regulated by the Energy Law. When contracts on major energy transportation systems are exclusive, contractors must enable third parties to use the pipelines.
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