The UK’s Investigatory Powers Tribunal has rejected legal challenges to the British government’s electronic surveillance and data collection program. The Tribunal dismissed the complaint of privacy groups Liberty, Privacy International, the American Civil Liberties Union, and Amnesty International that the UK’s Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) had violated European and British law by monitoring UK citizens’ private electronic communications and accessing those that had been intercepted by the U.S. National Security Agency.  While the Tribunal found that the British government’s alleged intelligence gathering scheme was “lawful and human rights-compliant,” with adequate safeguards against arbitrary privacy violations, it left open the question whether the manner in which the groups’ own particular communications were monitored was unlawful.