Earlier this month, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) decided in Barbulescu v. Romania that European employers can monitor employee communications under certain conditions without violating privacy rights, even when the monitoring involves private communications.  This decision is particularly striking because, in the past two years, the ECHR’s older cousin, the European Court of Justice, has decided three major cases in which it upheld very broad rights of individual privacy ‒ invalidating the U.S-EU Safe Harbor and the EU Data Retention Directive, and creating a “right to be forgotten” for search engine content.