Types of shareholders' claims

Main claims

Identify the main claims shareholders in your jurisdiction may assert against corporations, officers and directors in connection with M&A transactions.

Apart from situations in which shareholders are a party to a transaction (ie, as sellers) and have all the respective rights and duties, shareholders typically assert claims in three types of cases: lack of information or disclosure; violation of stipulations that protect the shareholders; and tortious acts.

In particular, shareholders may assert claims for damages if they have not been duly informed about the transaction. Pursuant to the German Securities Trading Act, the management board of a publicly listed stock company has to publish insider information that directly affects the company. This disclosure obligation applies, in particular, to information that is relevant to the further development of the share price. In the case of an M&A transaction, this notification requirement will be triggered if its realisation is sufficiently probable. Further, the shareholder agreement, the statutes of the entity or the rules of procedure of the management board can stipulate certain requirements for M&A transactions: for example, the involvement and consent of an investment committee or a resolution of the shareholders. Shareholders may assert claims if such stipulations have been violated. Further, in certain events potentially following an M&A transaction, such as the conclusion of a profit transfer agreement, in the event of a squeeze-out or, for example, in the event of a transformation of the target according to the German Transformation Act, shareholders have a claim to appropriate cash compensation.

Requirements for successful claims

For each of the most common claims, what must shareholders in your jurisdiction show to bring a successful suit?

To bring a claim for damages for lack of information under the Securities Trading Act, a shareholder must assert that the management board has violated its duty of disclosure. To do this, the shareholder must show that the management board has failed to disclose insider information that directly affects the company. In addition, a claim can be considered if an incorrect ad hoc announcement has been published. However, it is typically difficult to prove in court that the shareholder has suffered a loss, as typically the stock price rises after a transaction.

To assert a claim for a breach of a shareholder agreement, a shareholder must show that the provisions of the shareholder agreement have been violated in an unlawful manner. The shareholder can then try to block the transaction (see question 9) or claim damages in cases where the transaction has already taken place. If the shareholder claims damages, the shareholder has to show he or she suffered a loss.

Further, shareholders have the right to receive appropriate compensation in certain cases (see question 1). In these cases, the shareholder must show that he or she has not been offered compensation or has not been offered such in an orderly manner, or that the cash compensation offered is not appropriate.

A claim for compensation for damages in tortious acts is possible if shareholders are withdrawn from their membership rights. In addition, shareholders are also entitled to a tortious claim for damages if they have been intentionally injured in a manner contrary to good morals. This may be the case, for example, if a member of the management board participates in immoral acts committed by majority shareholders or in connection with the acquisition of shares through deliberately incorrect ad hoc disclosure.

Publicly traded or privately held corporations

Do the types of claims that shareholders can bring differ depending on whether the corporations involved in the M&A transaction are publicly traded or privately held?

Yes, there are several stipulations that only apply to listed stock corporations. Some of the above-mentioned main claims - for example, the obligation of the management board to disclose insider information in accordance with the Securities Trading Act (see in detail questions 1 and 2) - only apply to publicly listed stock companies.

Form of transaction

Do the types of claims that shareholders can bring differ depending on the form of the transaction?

In general, the form of a transaction has no influence on the type of claim that can be brought. The main exception is the case of a merger: the Transformation Act contains special statutory stipulations for shareholder claims in the event of mergers of companies. For example, shareholders who raised an objection to a merger resolution have a claim to appropriate cash compensation against the acquiring legal entity. Further, the shareholders can challenge a resolution to merge.

Negotiated or hostile transaction

Do the types of claims differ depending on whether the transaction involves a negotiated transaction versus a hostile or unsolicited offer?


Party suffering loss

Do the types of claims differ depending on whether the loss is suffered by the corporation or by the shareholder?

Shareholders can only assert claims if they themselves have suffered a loss. For example, shareholders can assert claims if the shareholder agreement is violated or if the management board has not fulfilled its notification obligation (see in detail questions 1 and 2). If the corporation has suffered the loss, shareholders usually cannot assert any claims. However, in exceptional cases, shareholders can take legal action for the claims of the corporation (litigation in one’s own name on another’s behalf; see in detail question 8).