In compliance with a court order, EPA is proposing to update its nitrogen dioxide air quality standard for the first time since 1971. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is formed by emissions from cars, trucks, buses, power plants, and industrial facilities and has been linked to some respiratory diseases – namely asthma. According to EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson: "In addition to limiting annual average concentrations, we're preventing high NO2 levels for shorter periods of time and adding stronger monitoring in areas near roadways, where the highest levels of NO2 are often found." To accomplish this, EPA is proposing to revise the primary NO2 standard by establishing a one-hour NO2 standard at a level between 80 – 100 parts per billion (ppb), retain the current annual average NO2 standard of 53 ppb, add NO2 monitoring within 50 meters of major roads in cities with at least 350,000 residents, and continue monitoring "area-wide" NO2 concentrations in cities with at least 1 million residents. EPA must issue a final decision on the NO2 standard by Jan. 22, 2010.