The 2019 version of the Nordic Marine Insurance Plan 2013 was approved by the plan's Standing Revision Committee and formally entered into force on 1 January 2019. The revisions include a clearer borderline between war and marine risks, an automatic reinstatement clause for loss of hire and several other amendments. It also introduces an arbitration clause.
For a Nordic claims leader, the new version of the plan still provides (in Clause 1-4A) that:
- the courts at the place of the claims leader's head office shall have exclusive jurisdiction over disputes in connection with the insurance; and
- the law of the place where the claims leader has its head office shall be applied.
The new arbitration clause has been introduced in the new version of the plan as an option for insurances with Nordic claims leaders.
Previous versions of the plan have stated that disputes arising from insurance contracts effected with a non-Nordic claims leader shall be governed by Norwegian law. However, the plan made no mention of jurisdiction in these cases. In many instances this has come as a surprise to litigants, who often assumed that the plan provided for exclusive Norwegian jurisdiction in these cases, but who have subsequently found themselves involved in proceedings in unexpected jurisdictions pursuant to the Brussels I Regulation and the Lugano Convention.
The new arbitration clause (Clause 1-4B) in the 2019 version of the plan now makes arbitration the default dispute resolution mechanism where there is a non-Nordic claims leader. The arbitration clause provides that:
- the arbitration shall be administered by the Nordic Offshore and Maritime Arbitration Association (NOMA) pursuant to its rules and best practice guidelines;
- the place of arbitration shall be Oslo unless otherwise agreed, with Norwegian law to apply;
- if the parties have agreed another Nordic country as the place of arbitration, the law of that country shall apply;
- if the parties have agreed to arbitration in a non-Nordic country, Norwegian law shall apply; and
- any changes to the above must be made in writing.
Making arbitration the default position (when there is a non-Nordic claims leader) aims to align the plan with market practice. However, the change has also been brought about by the looming consequences of Brexit.
The Brussels I Regulation and the Lugano Convention allow for free movement of judgments across Europe. However, with the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union on 29 March 2019, the issue of European recognition and enforcement of judgments handed down by UK courts will be fraught with uncertainty.
It is unclear whether the Brussels I Regulation will continue to apply in the European Union in respect of UK judgments and as of today the United Kingdom is not a signatory to the Lugano Convention.
This poses a problem to non-Nordic claims leaders with a preference for UK jurisdiction. The plan's designers have thought it better to refer these matters to arbitration. Regardless of Brexit, arbitral awards are ensured cross-border effect pursuant to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.
The plan determines that NOMA, by default, shall assume the functions of administering the arbitral process pursuant to the association's rules and guidelines.
NOMA was established in 2017 and its rules and guidelines have been developed to promote high-quality, transparent and cost-efficient arbitrations. Building on both the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on Arbitration as well as the International Bar Association Rules on the Taking of Evidence, the goal is to offer a pragmatic approach to dispute resolution, in keeping with the Nordic tradition. However, while Nordic in origin, there is nothing in the NOMA rules preventing issues under English law governed contracts to be arbitrated under NOMA. The plan's inclusion of NOMA may therefore result in Nordic arbitration attracting a wider audience.
For further information on this topic please contact Herman Steen, Anders W Færden or Sindre T Myklebust at Wikborg Rein by telephone (+47 22 82 75 00) or email (email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com). The Wikborg Rein website can be accessed at www.wr.no.
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