The General Court (T-461/07) has confirmed that Visa infringed EU rules on restrictive business practices by preventing Morgan Stanley from joining its payment card network. In 2007 the European Commission fined Visa €10.2m for excluding Morgan Stanley for over six years from its network on the basis that it limited the provision of credit card acceptance services to merchants in the UK. Visa attempted to obstruct Morgan Stanley’s application by invoking an internal rule that the board of directors could block any applicant deemed to be a competitor. However, Morgan Stanley was not a competitor because it did not have a payment card network in the EU and it could not extend its US card network (Discover) to the EU. The General Court upheld the Commission’s finding that the acquiring market was characterised by a high degree of concentration and a trend towards consultation. Therefore, the entry of a new player would have created scope for further competition in the UK market.