Defence procurement law fundamentals

Mandatory procurement clauses

Are there mandatory procurement clauses that must be included in a defence procurement contract or that will be read into the contract regardless of their actual inclusion?

There are no mandatory clauses that must be included in a defence procurement contract, and no clauses that will be implied specifically within defence procurement contracts.

However, the MoD will typically seek to include certain standard clauses in its contracts. Primarily, these are the DEFCONs, although the MoD does use other standard forms of contract in certain circumstances. If a particular DEFCON is relevant to the subject matter of a contract, the MoD will typically seek to include that DEFCON.

Cost allocation

How are costs allocated between the contractor and government within a contract?

Where the SSCRs do not apply, allocation of costs under a contract will be contained in a commercial agreement between the parties, with a fixed or firm price being the most common. Gainshare, painshare or value for money reviews are common in long-term contracts to avoid excessive profits or losses occurring.

Where the SSCRs apply, one of the specified pricing models set out in the SSCRs must be used. These pricing methods are:

  • fixed price;
  • firm price;
  • cost plus;
  • estimate-based fee;
  • target cost incentive fee; and
  • volume-driven pricing.

All of these pricing mechanisms are based on the contract price being the allowable costs incurred or estimated by the contractor plus an agreed profit rate. To be allowable, costs must be appropriate, attributable to the contract and reasonable. This will be assessed by reference to the statutory guidance on allowable costs (published by the SSRO as regulator).


What disclosures must the contractor make regarding its cost and pricing?

Where the SSCRs do not apply the cost and pricing information that the contractor must disclose to the MoD is a commercial agreement between the parties. The MoD will often negotiate open-book contractual obligations into its higher value contracts.

Under SSCRs, there are statutory reporting requirements where the contractor is required to report on the costs that it will incur or has incurred in performing the contract. Particularly relevant to contract cost and pricing is the ‘contract pricing statement’, which is settled on contract signature and sets out the cost information on which the price is agreed. Other reports are also required to be delivered regularly throughout the term of the contract (and at the end) that provide information on the costs actually incurred as the contract progresses.


How are audits of defence and security procurements conducted in this jurisdiction?

Where the SSCRs do not apply, the MoD will not have a statutory audit right but will be reliant on the open book or audit contractual provisions negotiated into the contract (see question 15).

Under the SSCRs, there are statutory requirements to keep records in relation to the contract, and the MoD has the right to examine these records.

The MoD’s audit right can be exercised at any time, though the MoD guidance sets out when this is likely to be exercised in practice.

IP rights

Who gets the ownership rights to intellectual property created during performance of the contract? What licences are typically given and how?

The MoD’s policy on the ownership of intellectual property arising under its contracts is that intellectual property will normally vest with the contractor generating the intellectual property, in exchange for which the MoD will expect the right to disclose, use and have used the intellectual property for UK government purposes (including security and civil defence).

This is achieved through the inclusion of intellectual property-related DEFCONs in the contract. These DEFCONs are currently under review - the MoD intends to replace them with a single intellectual property DEFCON (though this new DEFCON would still align with MoD’s policy on intellectual property ownership).

MoD policy does specify certain scenarios when it expects that it should own the new intellectual property created by the contractor but, in such cases, the MoD will not unreasonably prevent the contractor from using the skills and expertise developed in carrying out the work without charge for its internal business purposes.

Economic zones

Are there economic zones or other special programmes in this jurisdiction commonly utilised by foreign defence and security contractors for financial or other procurement related benefits?

We are not aware of any such economic zones or programmes in the UK.

Forming legal entities

Describe the process for forming legal entities, including joint ventures, in this jurisdiction.

A joint venture could either be a corporate or commercial joint venture. A corporate joint venture would involve the joint venture parties setting up a new legal entity (likely, a limited company registered in England and Wales), which would be an independent legal entity able to contract in its own right, and which is liable for its own debts. It is relatively straightforward and inexpensive to establish a company; the parties must file a Form IN01 and articles of association at Companies House and pay the applicable filing fee. The company is brought into existence when Companies House issues the certificate of incorporation. The shareholders (joint venture parties) would also likely agree in a shareholders’ agreement the roles and responsibilities of each shareholder and their respective obligations to invest capital and resources into the company.

A commercial joint venture does not involve any separate legal entity, and the parties contractually agree each party’s roles and responsibilities.

Access to government records

Are there statutes or regulations enabling access to copies of government records? How does it work? Can one obtain versions of previous contracts?

Under the Freedom of Information Act 2000, there is a general right for the public to access information held by public bodies. As the MoD is a public body, on the face of it this right would extend to contracts and records held by the MoD - allowing people to request these documents.

There are exemptions from disclosure under the Act (whether they apply depends on the context):

  • for ‘information provided in confidence’, where disclosure of the information to the public would constitute a legally actionable breach of confidence; and
  • under ‘commercial interests’ subject to a public interest test for information that constitutes a trade secret or where disclosure would prejudice the commercial interests of any person.

MoD policy is to consult with companies when disclosure of information supplied by or related to them is being considered under the Act. Should the MoD decide to disclose information against the wishes of the company, it will notify the company of the decision prior to disclosure.

Supply chain management

What are the rules regarding eligible suppliers and supply chain management and anti-counterfeit parts for defence and security procurements?

Subject to limited exceptions, the defence procurement rules oblige an authority to reject tenders from bidders who have been convicted of certain serious offences (such as bribery, corruption and fraud). They also give the authority discretion to exclude bidders on other grounds, such as insolvency or gross professional misconduct. The rules expressly permit authorities to consider the same exclusion grounds for sub-contractors, as well as giving them broad rights, for example, to require a supplier to openly compete some of the sub-contracts or to flow down obligations regarding information security.

If the MoD has specific concerns around the robustness of the supply chain (eg, supplier fragility or lack of competition) then it will negotiate contractual provisions with the contractor giving it certain controls or involvement in the supply chain strategy. Detailed quality assurance requirements will also be included in a contract and will cover fraudulent and counterfeit material.