Many readers will be familiar with a particular logistical issue that arises all too often when preparing to file a motion for summary judgment before the filing deadline: a supporting affidavit is needed from a key witness at the last minute. Traditionally, this situation has posed a problem where the witness has no convenient access to a notary public and has to drop everything in order to find one fast. If you find yourself in such a situation with regard to a case pending in federal court, you’re in luck! Under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 56 and 28 U.S.C. § 1746, an unsworn declaration can now serve as a substitute for a notarized affidavit—to provide affirmative testimony and/or to authenticate documents—if it is subscribed by the witness as true, under penalty of perjury, and dated. Like an affidavit, though, the declaration must be made on personal knowledge, set out facts that would be admissible in evidence, and show that the witness is competent to testify on the matters stated.