Following the Ukrainian NCA's 2016 decision to impose a fine on Gazprom in the amount of USD 3.2 billion for allegedly abusing its dominant position as the only buyer of gas transit services through Ukraine, as well as several challenges filed by Gazprom with different courts (ultimately dismissed), Gazprom has announced, at the beginning of April 2018, that it is preparing a lawsuit in international arbitration against Ukraine, as it does not recognize the legitimacy of the imposed fine. This step marks an interesting turn in what has been a case with deeply rooted political implications.