The Treaty of Lisbon or Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) entered into force on December 1, 2009, after ratification by all EU member states. The substantive provisions contained in the EC Treaty are mostly unchanged. What the Treaty of Lisbon does in terms of policy is merge the “three pillar” structure created by the Maastricht Treaty into one, streamlining the EU’s foreign policy and giving EU institutions a greater role in justice and home affairs cooperation. A number of new policy areas have also been added.

Although there are no substantive changes in the field of competition law, the relevant articles have been renumbered by TFEU. The basic competition rules are now Article 101 (replacing Article 81 on anti-competitive agreements) and Article 102 (replacing Article 82 on abuse of dominance). EU state aid law is now governed by Articles 107 and 108 of the TFEU (replacing Articles 87 and 88, respectively).