California Governor Jerry Brown (D) joined China's top climate official, National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Vice Chairman Xie Zhenhua, on September 13 to sign a first-of-its-kind agreement on climate change between the NDRC and a subnational entity. The memorandum of understanding seeks to enhance cooperation through a range of activities, including: mitigating carbon emissions; strengthening performance standards to control greenhouse gasses; designing and implementing carbon emissions trading systems; sharing information on policies and programs to strengthen low carbon development; exchanging personnel and jointly organizing workshops and training; and researching clean and efficient energy technologies.