General introduction to the legislative framework for private antitrust enforcementi Private antitrust enforcement
The Competition Tribunal and the Competition Appeal Court have exclusive jurisdiction in respect of the interpretation and application of, inter alia, Chapter 2 of the Competition Act, 1998 (Competition Act), which regulates prohibited practices. However, Section 62(5) of the Competition Act precludes the Competition Tribunal and the Competition Appeal Court from making an assessment of the amount of damages and awarding damages arising from a prohibited practice: only the South African civil courts can award damages for a contravention of the Competition Act (Section 65(2) of the Competition Act).
Sections 62 and 65(2) of the Competition Act thus provide that the competition authorities have exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether a prohibited practice under the Competition Act has occurred, but the civil courts have exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether a claimant is entitled to damages, and if so, how much.
The substantive requirements for instituting civil action are set out in Section 65 of the Competition Act, and a finding by the competition authorities of a prohibited practice is a prerequisite for a civil claim for damages.
If requested by a claimant, the Chairperson of the Competition Tribunal or the Judge President of the Competition Appeal Court must issue a certificate certifying that the conduct constituting the basis for the action has been found to be a prohibited practice in terms of the Competition Act. A certificate issued in terms of Section 65(6)(b) of the Competition Act is conclusive proof of its contents and is binding on a civil court. This means that a claimant will not need to prove any prohibited conduct before the civil court, and any action will relate only to whether the other elements of a delictual (tort) claim for damages have been met.
In a 2015 SCA decision, the SCA considered a situation where the leniency applicant had not been cited as a respondent to a complaint referral of the cartel complaint by the Competition Commission to the Competition Tribunal. The SCA found that civil action could not be pursued against the bread manufacturer Premier (although it was granted leniency) because the Competition Commission had failed to cite it as a respondent. In December 2015, the Competition Commission brought an application for leave to appeal this decision to the Constitutional Court in an effort to protect the rights of those that had suffered damage as a result of the prohibited practice. Prior to the application for leave to appeal being heard, a settlement agreement was reached between Premier and civil society organisations including Black Sash, COSATU, the Children's Resources Centre and the National Consumer Forum. The application for leave to appeal has therefore been withdrawn.ii Limitation to bringing a claim for damages
Any action for a civil claim for damages must be instituted within three years from the date on which the action arose.
A person's right to bring a claim for damages arising out of a prohibited practice comes into existence on the date that the Competition Tribunal made a determination in respect of a matter that affects that person (i.e., the finding of prohibited practice); or in the case of an appeal, on the date that the appeal process in respect of that matter is concluded.