The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published its final caffeine risk assessment, concluding that “single doses of caffeine up to 200 mg” and “habitual caffeine consumption up to 400 mg per day does not give rise to safety concerns for non-pregnant adults.” Following a two-month consultation, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA Panel) issued a scientific opinion considering “possible interactions” between caffeine and energy drink constituents, alcohol, p-synephrine, and physical exercise. The data evidently indicated no safety concerns when non-pregnant adults consume up to 200 mg of caffeine (i) less than 2 hours before intense physical exercise, (ii) in combination with energy drink ingredients such as taurine or d-glucurono-γ-lactone at typical concentrations, or (iii) in combination with alcohol at doses up to 0.65 g/kg body weight (bw).

“The single doses of caffeine considered to be of no concern for adults (3mg/kg bw per day) may also be applied to children, because the rate at which children and adolescents process caffeine is at least that of adults, and the studies available on the acute effects of caffeine on anxiety and behavior in children and adolescents support this level,” notes EFSA. “A safety level of 3mg/kg bw per day is also proposed for habitual caffeine consumption by children and adolescents.”