The Commission confirmed on 1 March 2011 that Commission officials initiated unannounced inspections at the premises of companies that are active in the e-book (electronic or digital books) publishing sector in several Member States. The Commission had reason to believe that the companies concerned may have violated EU antitrust rules that prohibit cartels and other restrictive business practices (Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)). The Commission officials were accompanied by their counterparts from the relevant national competition authorities. The Commission did not say which Member States were involved in the inspections.