On September 25, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released a final rule that requires acute-care and critical access hospitals to have an antibiotic stewardship program. As a condition of participation in Medicare or Medicaid, all acute-care and critical access hospitals must now have an antibiotic stewardship program in order to be reimbursed by CMS. According to a 2018 CDC study, 20-50% of all antibiotics prescribed in U.S. acute care hospitals are either unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotic stewardship programs are hospital-based programs that aim to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.