The Commission opened formal antitrust investigation against MasterCard for suspected breaches of Article 101 of the TFEU with regard to payment cards. The investigation concerns, inter alia, inter-bank fees in relation to payments made by cardholders from non-EEA countries. Inter-bank fees are generally passed on to the merchants, leading to higher overall fees for them. The investigation further concerns all rules on cross-border acquiring in the MasterCard system that limit the possibility for a merchant to benefit from better conditions offered by banks established elsewhere in the internal market, as well as related practices, such as the "honor all cards rule" which obliges a merchant to accept all types of MasterCard cards. The Commission has already in 2007 prohibited some of MasterCard’s inter-bank fees. An appeal against the decision is currently pending before the European Court of Justice. The Commission is also conducting a parallel investigation into similar practices of another major card provider Visa. The Commission has announced its intention to propose legislation on inter-bank fees for payment cards before the summer to provide legal certainty and a level playing field for all providers. Source: Commission Press Release 9/4/2013