The Supreme Court issued two pro-employer decisions. In the first, the Supreme Court ruled that a supervisor must have authority to take a tangible employment action (such as hiring or firing) for an employer to be subject to liability for the action of the supervisor (referred to as vicarious liability) under Title VII (Vance v. Ball State U.). In the second case, the Supreme Court ruled that Title VII retaliation claims must be proven according to the more stringent principle of but-for causation, not simply that the alleged retaliatory desire was a motivating factor in the employment decision (U. of Texas Southwestern Med. Ctr. v. Nassar).