On February 4th, the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations held hearings on its report, "Keeping Foreign Corruption Out of the United States: Four Case Histories". The hearings examined how foreign officials, their relatives, or close associates, collectively known as "Politically Exposed Persons", have used the services of U.S. professionals and U.S. financial institutions to bring suspect funds into the United States. Four case histories illustrate how some PEPs have used U.S. lawyers, realtors, escrow agents, lobbyists, bankers, and others to circumvent U.S. anti-money laundering and anti-corruption safeguards. Hearing Witness List (with links to archived webcast and prepared remarks). Report recommendations include adopting additional AML laws; repealing certain PATRIOT Act exemptions for real estate agents; requiring U.S. financial institutions to obtain a certification from each attorney-client and law office account that it will not be used to circumvent AML or PEP controls, and requiring enhanced monitoring of such accounts; and asking professional organizations to issue guidance to members. Reuters reported that three witnesses at the hearings invoked the Fifth Amendment. Taking the Fifth.