On August 23, the FEC issued an advisory opinion regarding proposed internet advertisements by the National Defense Committee (NDC). NDC had sought advice to determine whether seven proposed ads would be considered express advocacy under FEC regulations and subject to reporting obligations. While three of the proposed ads were determined not to contain express advocacy, the FEC could not issue an opinion on the four remaining ads. Each of the seven ads was examined on a case-by-case basis, with no explicit test applied to determine whether a communication qualified as express advocacy. The deadlock on four of the ads highlights the uncertainty that remains in campaign communications in the absence of a less ambiguous rule from the FEC.