Effective June 28, 2009, the DOS will begin utilizing an updated Exchange Visitor List. The Exchange Visitor Skills List is a list of specialized knowledge and skills that are deemed necessary for the development of an exchange visitor's home country. It is used by consular officers to determine whether an exchange visitor applying for a J-visa is subject to Section 212(e) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended. Any alien who obtained an exchange visitor visa and/or became a participant in an Exchange Visitor Program involving a designated field of specialized knowledge or skill was subject to the two-year foreign residence (home country physical presence) requirement of INA Section 212(e). The Exchange Visitor List was first published on April 25, 1972, and revised on February 10, 1978. New lists were published on June 12, 1984 and January 16, 1997. Exchange visitors who entered the United States prior to the effective date shall continue to be governed by the 1997 Exchange Visitor Skills List, as amended.