Build-operate-transfer (BOT) projects are relatively common, but licensed BOT projects are rare. They are one of the few types of investment still overseen by the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI). To give a boost to such projects – which may play a crucial role in the development of infrastructure over the coming years – the competence to receive application dossiers for implementation of BOT projects in Vietnam has been assigned to the Foreign Investment Agency by virtue of Decision 521 of the MPI dated 16 April 2009. Decision 521 does not alter the MPI’s exclusive authority to issue investment certificates for such projects.