The federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) governs child labor in all 50 states. In addition, many states have child labor laws that differ from the FLSA. When state law and federal law differ, employers must follow the law that is most protective of the minor (individual under age 18). Below are highlights of the child labor laws applicable to nonagricultural work by minors in the states covered by The West Coast Employer.

FLSA (29 C.F.R. § 570)

Minimum age for employment: 14

Certificates of age/work permits: Not required

Hours of work for 14- and 15-year-olds: During nonschool hours between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. (9 p.m. from June 1 through Labor Day)

School days: 3 hours a day/18 hours a week

Nonschool days: 8 hours a day/40 hours a week

Hours of work for 16- and 17-year-olds: Unlimited

Types of work for 14- and 15-year-olds: Only work that is expressly allowed by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)

Types of work for 16- and 17-year olds: Any occupation not declared hazardous by the DOL

Arizona (A.R.S. § 23-230)

Minimum age for employment: Unspecified

Certificates of age/work permits: Not required

Hours of work for 14- and 15-year-olds:

School days and days preceding a school day: 3 hours a day/18 hours a week during nonschool hours between 6 a.m. and 9:30 p.m.

Nonschool days: 8 hours a day/40 hours a week between 6 a.m. and 11 p.m.

Hours of work for 16- and 17-year-olds: Unlimited

Types of work: Restrictions on certain occupations and types of work for minors ages 16 and 17, with further restrictions for minors ages 14 and 15.

California (LC § 1391)

Minimum age for employment: 12, except in the entertainment industry

Certificates of age/work permits: Required

Hours of work for 14- and 15-year-olds:

School days and days preceding a school day: 3 hours a day/18 hours a week

Nonschool days: 8 hours a day/40 hours a week

During nonschool hours between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. (9 p.m. from June 1 through Labor Day)

Hours of work for 16- and 17-year-olds:

School days and days preceding a school day: 4 hours a day during nonschool hours between 5 a.m. and 10 p.m.

Nonschool days: 8 hours a day/48 hours a week between 5 a.m. and 12:30 a.m.

Types of work: Restrictions on certain occupations and types of work for minors ages 16 and 17, with further restrictions for minors ages 14 and 15

Hawaii (H.R.S. Chapter 390)

Minimum age for employment: 14

Certificates of age/work permits: Required

Hours of work for minors 14 and 15 years of age:

School days: 3 hours a day/18 hours a week during nonschool hours

Any calendar week school is in session: Between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m.

Nonschool days: 8 hours a day/40 hours a week

Any week school is not in session: Between 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.

Types of work: Restrictions on certain occupations and types of work for minors under age 18.

Rest breaks: At least 30 minutes after 5 continuous hours of work

Nevada (N.R.S. Chapter 609)

Minimum age for employment: 14

Certificates of age/work permits: Not required

Hours of work for minors under age 16: 8 hours a day/48 hours a week during nonschool hours only

Types of work: Restrictions on certain occupations and types of work for minors under age 16.

With few exceptions, minimum wage and overtime rules apply to minors. Your state may have additional rules that cover employment of children under the age of 14, children working for parents, and children in certain occupations, such as entertainment.